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    社會資本發力 文化供給創新前景可期
     

    文化和旅游部、財政部近日聯合印發《關于在文化領域推廣政府和社會資本合作模式的指導意見》(以下簡稱《意見》)明確,將深化文化領域供給側結構性改革,推動政府職能轉變,創新文化供給機制,引導社會資本積極參與文化領域政府和社會資本合作(PPP)項目。

    根據《意見》,此舉旨在牢固樹立和貫徹落實新發展理念,牢牢把握社會主義先進文化前進方向,以推進文化領域供給側結構性改革為主線,鼓勵和引導社會資本進入文化領域,以高質量文化供給增強人民群眾的文化獲得感幸福感。

    接受中國經濟時報記者采訪的專家認為,在文化等公共服務領域推廣PPP模式早已是既定政策路線,《意見》在文化領域對社會資本的準入與合作機制加以明確,注定會對我國文化事業從供給機制和內容上帶來創新,繼而帶動文化產業乃至整個文化領域的產品豐富和繁榮。

    創新引領凸顯較強公共屬性

    近年來,多部門屢次對政府和社會資本合作重申政策框架,截至目前,PPP模式正在多個領域百花齊放,早已形成助力地方經濟發展和豐富公共服務供給的主力軍。

    而推廣PPP模式,正是需要政府在PPP推進發展初期就是要及時調整政策安排,通過必要的機制,實現構建更加有利的PPP規范發展環境,其目的是通過引入市場機制和資源,將PPP模式應用于圍繞增加公共產品和公共服務供給的諸多領域,包括能源、交通運輸、水利、環境保護、農業、林業、科技、保障性安居工程、醫療、衛生、養老、教育、文化等公共服務領域。

    不難發現,近年來社會資本進入領域門檻大幅降低,各個公共服務領域早已邁開了PPP合作的步子,而文化領域卻鮮有切實動作,一方面,與文化公共服務的公益屬性不無關系,另一方面也與政策體制機制尚須理順關系有關。

    近年來,隨著文化領域體制改革的大力推進取得明顯進展,在原有文化服務提供主體紛紛著眼于市場化發展方向的大背景下,《意見》的發布看似水到渠成,且將掃除社會資本進駐文化領域的障礙,對于廣大關注文化服務領域的各路社會資本而言,亦將迎來大規模進駐投資的難得機遇。

    最受矚目的是,未來,隨著門檻的放開,將有哪些領域被允許社會資本進入。根據《意見》明確的推廣領域,鼓勵社會需求穩定、具有可經營性、能夠實現按效付費、公共屬性較強的文化項目采用PPP模式。重點包括但不限于具有一定收益性的文化產業集聚發展、特色文化傳承創新、公共文化服務、非物質文化遺產保護傳承以及促進文化和旅游、農業、科技、體育、健康等領域深度融合發展的文化項目。

    《意見》明確要堅持改革創新。深化對PPP模式的理解認識,加快觀念轉變。加大在文化領域推廣運用PPP模式的力度,積極探索有利于解放和發展文化生產力的新舉措、新途徑,激發文化創新創造活力。

    “經濟社會的發展帶來人們對文化產品需求的提升,客觀決定著包括公共文化產品在內的整體文化事業發展都須跟隨市場化腳步,形成新供給,對接新需求。”中國人民大學發展中國家經濟研究中心教授彭剛在接受中國經濟時報記者采訪時表示,這其中引入社會資本有助于激發文化事業活力,繼而對文化產業形成正向帶動,通過項目開展模式的創新豐富公共屬性較強的文化產品。

    繁榮文化事業帶動文化產業發展

    在彭剛看來,推進文化事業繁榮必然會帶動相關產業的快速發展。他認為,與經濟發展須遵循市場規律一樣,通過繁榮文化事業促進相關產業發展也須遵循市場規律,并主要通過市場機制調節產業健康發展。

    實際上,這也正是各方所期待的目標,但眼前,引入社會資本到文化領域合作開發相關公共屬性較強的文化項目,直接目的仍在增加文化服務供給,對接日益多樣化的文化產品需求。為此,《意見》在明確推廣領域后,通篇重點對規范項目的實施以及政策保障加以著墨。

    《意見》明確了規范項目運作、突出運營核心、優化回報機制、加強全生命周期監管、強化信息公開等五方面規范項目實施的措施,其中,諸如鼓勵優秀企業通過參與文化PPP項目,帶動項目所在地上下游企業發展;根據項目特點確定項目回報機制,可依法依規為文化PPP項目配置經營性資源,為穩定投資回報、吸引社會投資創造條件;做好文化PPP項目全生命周期信息公開工作,及時、完整、準確地錄入文化PPP項目信息,提高信息對稱性,增強社會資本信心,讓項目陽光運營等一系列具體舉措不僅目標明確更具實際操作性,目的就是確保PPP合作項目的順利實施。

    實際上,之所以如前所說《意見》的發布是水到渠成,與我國當前日益繁盛的文化事業發展現狀有著緊密聯系,而一個個依托于互聯網背景下的文化產業發展更是文化事業繁榮發展的縮影。自2000年我國提出文化產業概念,隨后開始發展文化創意產業以來,相關產業規模快速增長。特別是近年來,在互聯網信息技術快速規模化應用和國家層面“互聯網+文化”政策實施的背景之下,文化產業發展正呈現出一系列新模式和新業態。

    “在移動互聯網的大環境下,文化產業商業模式已經發生變化。平臺為王、內容為王、專業垂直、O2O模式、股權眾籌以及在線參與等商業模式成為文化產業的主流。”北京大學文化產業研究院副院長陳少峰在接受中國經濟時報記者采訪時指出,基于這樣的文化產業發展背景,新進入的社會資本和文化企業有條件用好政府給予市場的政策,加快發展;應更加關注市場并善用市場引導,提升投資綜合效益,推動文化企業、文化產業乃至文化事業的全面發展,繼而帶動我國文化公共服務領域的供給升級。



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