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    以改革創新 促進新型城鎮化發展
     

    全國政協經濟委員會副主任、中央財經委員會辦公室原副主任楊偉民日前在出席“中國新型城鎮化理論·政策·實踐論壇2018”發表主旨演講時表示,黨的十八大特別是十八屆三中全會對城鎮化改革做了詳細部署,專門闡明城鎮化相關領域的改革,改革意義上的城鎮化開始起步。但總體上看,改革落實還有很多障礙,要繼續把推進城鎮化放在經濟工作的重要位置,真刀真槍抓好以下幾項改革的深化。

    一是加快農業轉移人口市民化。中央已經確定到2020年落戶1億人的目標,按照目前的進度這個目標很可能難以完成。在戶籍制度改革的問題上,對白領和藍領、對大學生和農民工要平等對待、一視同仁。有關部門應對一些地區不符合這種公平原則的積分制落戶進行檢查、責令修改。

    二是加快建立多主體供給、多渠道保障、租購并舉的住房制度。中國必須面對城鎮化的大勢重啟住房制度改革。這次住房制度改革的重點與20世紀90年代不同,主要是面對城市化的大趨勢,解決進入城市的新市民的住房問題。現在2億多農村轉移人口已經長期在城市工作居住,城市已經離不開他們了,他們中的絕大多數已經不會回到農村了,他們在農村的住房常年處于空置狀態。城市給他們提供了就業崗位,但并沒有同步為這2億多人口準備好買得起、租得起的住房。多主體供給、多渠道保障、租購并舉的住房制度,可以增加居住用地和商品房、租賃房的供給主體。多主體,意味著破除壟斷,意味著競爭,競爭意味著可能降低居住用地的價格,意味著可能降低商品房和租賃房的價格。

    三是建立城鄉統一的建設用地市場。這項改革先是在部分縣市分頭進行農村土地征收、集體經營性建設用地入市、農村宅基地的改革試點,現在已經改為“三塊地”在這些縣市同步推進,改革試點取得了不少成效。但我們完全可以在思想上再解放一點,在不改變農村建設用地集體所有的前提下,通過所有權與使用權分置的產權制度改革解決城鄉建設用地的市場分割問題,實現同國有土地同等入市、同權同價。

    農村集體建設用地可以不改變其所有權進入城市建設用地市場。這至少有利于解決城中村改造難問題。有的地區,原村民集體經濟組織自建、合建房即城中村提供的住房占住房總量的很大比重,大大超過商品房的數量。若通過拆遷改為國有用地、再招拍掛建設商品房,成本相當高,房價很難降下來,而且拆遷難度極大。若不改變其土地或部分房子的集體所有性質,不改變部分房子的個人所有產權,要求原村民集體經濟組織或個人,按照城市規劃和城市設計規范進行改造或重建,允許其改造或重建的住宅進入房地產市場,他們的積極性就會提高,因為他們沒有失掉產權,而且改造后還會增加收入。這實際上是政府讓利,不再獲取土地出讓金,也是把原來屬于房地產企業的利潤轉移給農村集體經濟組織和購房人、租房人。

    四是建立透明規范的城市建設投融資機制。十八屆三中全會提出了兩條改革舉措,一是允許地方政府通過發債等多種方式拓寬城市建設融資渠道,二是允許社會資本通過特許經營等方式參與城市基礎設施投資和運營。

    地方政府發債的改革已經通過預算法的修改得以落實。但具體做法有待完善,還是自上而下的分配發債指標,地方政府無權根據自身需要和財力自主決定發債規模,這恐怕也是目前地方政府隱性債務產生的土壤之一。應該按照三中全會確定的“規范透明”原則,賦予城市政府發行法定債務的自主權,上級部門的任務是進行規范和透明,讓市場決定城市政府債務的風險、收益。

    五是以城市群為主體構建大中小城市和小城鎮協調發展的城鎮格局。這是十九大提出的任務,看起來是一個城鎮化發展的途徑問題,但真要形成城市群,不改革是不行的。這里的改革任務有很多。如,如何通過規劃體制改革,實現規劃的一體化,制定“多規合一”的空間規劃。改革規劃的審批體制,由立法機關而不是行政機關審定,形成具有法律約束力的規劃,違反規劃就是違法,這樣才能實現一張藍圖干到底。如何打破地區封鎖,實現市場的一體化,招商引資政策的均等化。如何實現人口、資金、土地、科研成果等在城市群自由流動、市場化配置。如何實現交通一體化和網絡化,統一標準建設交通基礎設施,這就要改革以行政區為界限的規劃交通的體制。如何打通斷頭路,很多城市群硬件上建成了一小時交通圈,但因各種各樣的行駛限制,硬件上的一小時交通圈實際上變成了實際行駛時的二小時、三小時交通圈。如何實現生態環境保護一體化,統一各城市污染物治理和生態修復的規劃、標準、監測、執法,建立統一的環境準入和退出機制。如何建立和完善跨區域的城市發展協調機制,這也是三中全會提出的改革任務,現在的一些跨地區的協調機制,還是臨時性的,缺乏權威性,難以有效解決城市群發展中各種矛盾。

    六是簡化行政層級和改革建制市設置模式。我國目前實行的市管縣體制是1983年以來逐漸形成的,一定程度上發揮了城鄉合治、以市帶縣的功能,但增加了管理層次,加重了財政負擔,降低了行政效率。應該推進減少行政區劃層級改革。



    三分pk10
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